Madagascar

Last updated: January 2019
  • Region Eastern and Southern Africa
  • UPOV membership status Member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC); held discussions to develop laws based on the UPOV Convention
  • Participation in OECD Seed Schemes No
  • ISTA accredited member laboratories No
  • GM crop approval for cultivation No
  • Law on Plant Variety Protection No
Seed sector in Madagascar

Agriculture employs 70% of the population in Madagascar, where a wide range of food and cash crops are grown due to the country’s diverse climate, varying altitudes and variety of soils, Smallholder farmers dominate the agricultural sector, accounting for more than 95% of food produced on roughly 96% of cultivated land. More than 90% of the seeds used are farm-saved seeds of traditional varieties. The production of certified seeds is still insufficient to meet local demand.

The 1995 Seed Act outlines a division of responsibilities between the public and private sector. It leaves regulation to the public sector, which focuses on breeding and evaluating improved seed, while the formal seed sector comprises numerous institutions. The 2008 National Seed Strategy Document further built on the Seed Act, and in 2013 the National Agency for Official Seed and Plants Control (ANCOS) was established as the regulating entity for seeds in Madagascar. A Plant Breeders’ Rights Act and Plant Improvement Act is also in place.

The National Seeds Certifying Authority is mandated to do seed certification. Quality control is in place through ANCOS, which partners with the Malagasy Association for the Promotion of Seeds to promote quality seeds and seed policy orientation. The state-owned National Center for Applied Research on Rural Development has five research centers for rice, maize, cassava, beans and vegetables.

Observations

There are ten index companies operating in Madagascar, alongside several local companies outside of the scope of the index. Of the ten, Capstone Seeds is the only company carrying out processing activities. It is also one of only three, along with Seed Co and Technisem, that produces seed.

Seed Co and Technisem are notable for having breeding activities alongside production (for which Technisem engages smallholder farmers) without reporting any sales activities. Globally active Limagrain also breeds on the island. No companies report testing activities or extension services.

Index company activities identified in Madagascar
Company Crops in portfolio Company activities in country
Companies selected for
the Access to Seeds Index
Field
crops
Vegetables Breeding
location
Testing
location
Seed
production
Processing
location
Sales Extension
services
Bejo
Capstone Seeds
Corteva Agriscience
East-West Seed
Kenya Highland Seed
Limagrain
Sakata
Seed Co
Syngenta  **
Technisem  *
  • * Company involves smallholder farmers in seed production activities
  • ** Based on company data, sales activities include seeds and/or crop protection products

Other companies identified in the regional landscaping study and their activities

Company Crops in portfolio Company activities in country
Field
crops
Vegetable
crops
Breeding
location
Seed
production
Sales
Société Commerciale et Agricole d’Ambohimangakely (SCAA)
Centre Technique de l’Agroécologie du Sud/Ambovombe (CTAS)
Enterprise DOM
VALY Prodsem
CMS SAKAY