Access to Seeds
Index 2019 Eastern and
Southern Africa

Seed companies are a crucial partner in efforts to raise smallholder farmer productivity and achieve food and nutrition security. For the second time, the Access to Seeds Index shines a light on companies taking the lead in reaching smallholder farmers in Eastern and Southern Africa.

Introduction

Small-scale farming dominates the agricultural landscape in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and in several countries in Latin America. Helping farmers in these regions to grow more, and more nutritious, food is key to achieving food and nutrition security, one of the major challenges outlined by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

A large part of the answer to the question of how to raise agricultural productivity, while also remaining within the planetary boundaries and tackling climate change, lies in plant breeding – but only when the results of plant breeding reach smallholder farmers. This is where the seed industry comes in.

The Access to Seeds Index 2019 highlights different aspects of the seed industry. The ranking below focuses on 22 leading seed companies in Eastern and Southern Africa. This was preceded, in November 2018, by a ranking of the industry in South and Southeast Asia and a ranking of Global Seed Companies in January 2019. An evaluation of the industry in Western and Central Africa will follow in April 2019.

The Access to Seeds Index, initiated by the Amsterdam-based Access to Seeds Foundation, is the first benchmark to be published as part of the World Benchmarking Alliance (WBA), launched in September 2018 during the UN General Assembly in New York. The goal of WBA benchmarks is to increase the contribution of the private sector to achieving the SDGs.

Ranking

East African Seed tops the 2019 Access to Seeds Index for Eastern and Southern Africa. The company has a growing distribution network in the region. It stands out for its research activities that include local crops, seed production activities involving smallholders and a broad network of extension officers in multiple countries.

*Ethiopian Agricultural Business Corporation
**In August 2018, Bayer completed the $66 billion takeover of Monsanto. The 2019 index reflects company activities in the 2015-2017 period, prior to the takeover.
Measurement areas
  • Governance & Strategy
  • Genetic Resources
  • Intellectual Property
  • Research & Development
  • Seed Production
  • Marketing & Sales
  • Capacity Building

The Access to Seeds Index presents an overall ranking, which is the weighted sum of the results in seven measurement areas. The rankings for each of these areas are available below.

The top ten is made up of a mix of regional and global companies – the latter with headquarters outside of the region – that demonstrate a range of comparative strengths. Two companies originating in the region take the lead: East African Seed from Kenya and Seed Co, originally from Zimbabwe and now headquartered in South Africa.

Rooted in the continent, regional companies typically have strong distribution channels and adoption programs to support the productivity of smallholder farmers, who are predominantly their main customers. Global companies outpace their regional peers when it comes to comprehensive access to seeds policies and strategies underpinned by defined and verifiable targets, and generally have more extensive breeding programs.

East African Seed tops the 2019 Index, two places higher than in 2016, thanks to its continuing robust access to seeds strategies and broad portfolio availability, clear improvements in its smallholder-focused research program and a growing dedicated pool of extension staff providing tailored training.

The 2019 Index, which gives more weight to the extent of company activities in the region, sees Seed Co rank second, nine places higher than in 2016, primarily due to the wide spread of its activities across the region as it leads in production, testing and training locations. Thailand-based East-West Seed, which continues to grow its business activities in the region, ranks closely behind in third.

Corteva Agriscience ranks fourth, up two places from 2016 and outpacing its global peers in field crops, thanks to its extensive business operations in the region, including through its Pannar brand. Syngenta, ranking fifth, demonstrates strengths in setting commitments as well as activities carried out by its affiliated non-profit Syngenta Foundation.

Ugandan companies Victoria Seeds, NASECO, Equator Seeds and FICA Seeds also make it into the top ten, showcasing smallholder-focused operations, in particular in their home country. This is also the case for Ethiopian Agricultural Business Corporation, which moves up seven places and serves smallholder customers in the remotest areas of the country.


Learn more about this ranking

Syngenta’s partnership with non-profit organization TechnoServe is helping women farmers by providing agronomic training in Kenya. Through the ‘Mavuno Zaidi’ (Grow More) program, growers are trained on best practices for growing potatoes and tomatoes, which are an important source of income for farmers across the country. About one third of the trainers are women growers, who encourage other women to
join the program.
Photo credit: Syngenta

Key Findings

The number of undernourished people in the world reached an estimated 821 million in 2017. According to the FAO, the number of undernourished people has been on the rise in Southern Africa in recent years, and despite reaching its lowest levels in 2010 is also increasing once more in Eastern Africa. Climate variability and extremes have been identified as a major reason for the increase.

The seed industry has a vital role to play in helping farmers to adapt to climatic challenges while simultaneously raising production levels. The 2019 Index for Eastern and Southern Africa, which evaluates 22 leading seed companies in the region, shows that companies are present across the region, invest in seed business activities in multiple countries, offer a variety of seed types and packages tailored to smallholder needs and are taking steps to curb counterfeit seed. However, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) reports that just 23% of the smallholders in its member countries have access to improved varieties of major field crops, demonstrating that the majority of farmers have yet to be reached.

Furthermore, while three quarters of the companies have active breeding programs, for the majority of crops the youngest variety on offer is over three years old. This raises the question as to whether the industry’s response to rapidly changing climatic conditions is sufficient. Companies report that maize is the main business driver in the region, both in terms of breeding and sales, raising concerns about the ability of smallholder farmers to access a broad range of varieties of other important food crops, and in turn contribute to achieving sustainable food systems and supporting healthy and diverse diets. Extension and training activities, aimed at helping farmers to adopt improved seeds, are geographically imbalanced, covering significantly less countries than sales.

Key Finding 1

Presence

Companies are present in all index countries and investing in local seed sector development, but need to step up efforts to reach more smallholders

Corteva Agriscience, which is present in 18 index countries, and Seed Co, present in 17, have the broadest presence in Eastern and Southern Africa. Among the regional players, Darusalam Seed Company (in Somalia) and Ethiopian Agricultural Business Corporation are the only companies present solely in their home markets. All index countries have company representation, varying from 12 to 13 companies in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia, to five and three in Lesotho and Somalia respectively. South Africa leads in breeding, Kenya and Tanzania lead in seed production, while Ethiopia, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe also have significant company operations. None or limited investments were found in Botswana, Burundi, Eswatini, Lesotho and Namibia. However, despite significant investments and the broad presence of seed companies across the region, smallholder farmers continue, to a very large extent, to get their seeds from the informal sector.


Further reading

Key Finding 2

Portfolio

The industry offers a broad portfolio, tailored to the needs of smallholders

Companies offer a full range of field crops, legumes and vegetables to smallholders in the region, with maize considered the most important and all but one company offering vegetables. Companies demonstrate tailored approaches to smallholder customers by offering a mix of hybrid and open-pollinated varieties (OPVs). Smallholders often prefer the latter as they lend themselves to on-farm seed saving. Maize and sunflower are the only field crops with more hybrid varieties available than OPVs, while this is the case for just over half of vegetables. Vegetables are available in packages as small as 1g or 100 seeds, and field crops and legumes in packages from 100g, indicating companies’ consideration of smallholders-specific needs.


Further reading

Key Finding 3

Portfolio

Breeding focus is primarily on maize, with limited availability of diversity in varieties of other crops

Maize dominates breeding, raising concerns over crop diversity and adaptability within the regional seed system. Eleven companies report active maize programs, more than double that of dry beans, soybean and tomato, the next most frequently bred crops. Field crops and legumes are bred more frequently than vegetables, with only three of the six specialized vegetable companies demonstrating broad breeding programs in the region itself. Global companies have more developed breeding programs, releasing double the number of new varieties. Consequently, for 61% of crops in their portfolio the youngest variety is less than three years old, compared to 29% for regional companies. Regional peers rely more on other seed companies and public research institutes for parent material and germplasm.


Further reading

Key Finding 4

Adoption

Almost all companies provide extension services but mostly in their home or select markets, resulting in lack of adoption activities in multiple countries across the region

Nineteen companies (86%) provide extension services in the region. Despite this, a minority accompany sales activities with extension services in all or most countries where they are present, creating a geographic imbalance. Eight of the 12 companies in Uganda and nine of the 12 in Kenya report training smallholders. This contrasts with the companies in Angola (eight), Namibia (eight), Madagascar (seven) and South Sudan (seven), where none provide training. Seed Co leads the industry, providing training in 12 countries, followed by East African Seed, in six countries. East African Seed also sets the bar with the highest number of extension staff, employing 44 in Kenya, 25 in Tanzania and 20 in Uganda, among others.


Further reading

Key Finding 5

Counterfeit Seed

Companies use diverse tactics to tackle counterfeit seed, a key barrier to smallholder adoption

Counterfeit seed affects the business viability of both farmers and seed companies and has a significant impact upon companies’ adoption strategies and marketing and sales activities. About 60% of companies have implemented measures to address issues surrounding counterfeit seed, particularly in Uganda and Kenya. Four companies in Uganda use Kakasa, an e-verification scheme for purchased seed. Other companies demonstrate activities at the broader level through seed association policies or have adopted more traditional methods such as tamper-proof packaging or unique, hard-to-fake stickers.


Further reading

Measurement Areas

The assessment of company performance is based on a total of 59 indicators grouped in seven measurement areas. Each measurement area has four categories of indicators: Commitment, Performance, Transparency and Leadership. A company’s overall score is the weighted sum of the scores in each measurement area.

Governance & Strategy

Most companies have commitments to improve access to seeds for smallholder farmers, although only a minority align these with the Sustainable Development Goals. All companies are members of national seed trade associations, but less than half report dedicated activities.

Ranking for Governance & Strategy

Syngenta leads the ranking for Governance & Strategy. Its Good Growth Plan represents a leading example of an integrated, corporate-led sustainability strategy, with dedicated resources and activities aimed at improving access to seeds for smallholder farmers in the region and additional support from the Seeds2B program of the affiliated Syngenta Foundation, active in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe.

Globally active Corteva Agriscience and regional companies Seed Co and Victoria Seeds follow, all three demonstrating commitments to improve access to seeds for smallholder farmers and dedicated activities. Seed Co receives leadership points for its in-depth contribution to improving the business-enabling environment at both the national and regional level, the latter through the African Seed Trade Association (AFSTA), as well as its target to reach 40 million smallholders, which the company estimates to be 80% of the total number in sub-Saharan Africa. Victoria Seeds demonstrates leadership through its core mission of women smallholder empowerment. It is one of the few regional companies to link corporate strategies to the SDGs, in particular SDG 5 (Gender Equality).

While all companies are members of national seed trade associations, only half report on their activities through these associations, with lower ranking companies also lacking transparent and publicly available strategies or commitments related to smallholder farmers or sustainable development.

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Genetic Resources

Companies lack strategies relating to their contribution to conserving and using genetic resources. While global companies demonstrate some activities beyond legal obligations, regional companies’ contributions to the conservation of regionally significant germplasm are sporadic.

Ranking for Genetic Resources

East-West Seed leads the ranking in this measurement area, thanks to its commitments to the conservation and use of genetic resources and a customized track and trace system aimed at fulfilling access and benefit-sharing obligations. Syngenta and Corteva Agriscience have similar global commitments and track and trace systems that elevate their standing in this measurement area. Regional company East African Seed demonstrates broad efforts to conserve genetic resources, with activities to conserve diversity in local seed systems by promoting and offering technical knowledge on how to produce unique indigenous food crops on a larger scale using the latest farming techniques, conserving its own genetic material and assisting gene banks to conserve germplasm of crops grown in index countries. Monsanto provides access to its genetic resources, royalty free, by donating germplasm to the Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) project.

Pop Vriend Seeds reports having a track and trace system in accordance with international standards set by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) and a commitment that outlines its alignment with the Nagoya Protocol. NASECO has contributed germplasm to university research programs in Uganda and conserves its germplasm within its own gene bank. Seed Co also conserves its own germplasm and has commitments to the conservation and use of genetic resources.

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Intellectual Property

Disclosure of policies and positions relating to intellectual property is lacking among all regional companies. Farm-saved seed is viewed unfavorably, with companies expressing concerns about the impact of the practice on smallholder productivity and several adopting countermeasures.

Ranking for Intellectual Property

East-West Seed, Syngenta and Corteva Agriscience perform well in this measurement area, intellectual property (IP) largely being the domain of global companies with broad breeding programs. These companies have positions on IP that consider the needs of smallholder farmers, and East-West Seed and Syngenta also publicly disclose these positions. In contrast, a lack of commitment, performance and transparency around their IP activities in relation to smallholder farmers results in low scores for the majority of index companies.

Corteva Agriscience, through its royalty-free licensing of its CRISPR-Cas genome-editing technology, and Monsanto’s royalty-free contribution of maize materials and technologies to the Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) project demonstrate leading practices by facilitating the development of climate- and disease-resilient maize and cassava varieties for smallholder farmers in index countries.

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Research & Development

A majority of companies have research and development activities, with a clear emphasis on maize and a growing consideration of locally important crops. However, gaps remain with respect to collaborative research and incorporating local knowledge and feedback into breeding programs.

Ranking for Research & Development

East African Seed leads this measurement area, due to strong commitments outlined in its R&D Field Crop Research Guide aimed at developing improved varieties that meet the needs of smallholder farmers. The company is also involved in the development of a range of local crops suitable for the region, and it has breeding activities in several countries. Seed Co ranks second, receiving recognition and leadership points for its broad presence and five breeding stations throughout the region. East-West Seed ranks third due to its strength in breeding for local crops and delivering improved varieties of vegetables to the region. Technisem’s breeding work on vegetables and local crops is essentially tied with NASECO, who share a fourth-place ranking. NASECO ranks high due to its regional and international partnerships as well as commitments to developing improved varieties and specific traits useful to smallholder farmers. Corteva Agriscience, despite a middling performance overall, also receives leadership points for its comprehensive approach to combatting fall armyworm, a major regional pest.

Companies that underperform have fewer if any research and development activities than their top-ranking peers, nor do they engage in collaborative research. Systems for informing breeding programs with feedback from local consumers, traders and smallholder farmers in the region is an area for improvement for all companies.

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Seed Production

Seed production is prevalent in nearly all index countries, with smallholders involved in half of the production locations. Room for improvement remains for companies in developing and monitoring compliance with labor standards in seed production activities.

Ranking for Seed Production

FICA Seeds leads this measurement area and outperforms its peers by demonstrating a commitment to seed production in index countries, conducting these activities in all the countries where it is present and involving local farmer groups. Also notable is the company’s Increased Production of Foundation Seed for Maize and Upland Rice project in Uganda. In addition to a commitment to seed production in index countries, Victoria Seeds, in second place, stands out for its smallholder contracts which include price arrangements and share risk. Seed Co, in third place, produces seed in 15 countries, the highest number in the region. Along with Corteva Agriscience, which engages smallholders in all countries in which it produces seed, these companies receive leadership points.

Companies lower in the ranking also collaborate closely with local players on seed production. However, developing and monitoring labor standards is a major area for improvement for most companies. Only East-West Seed, Corteva Agriscience, Syngenta and Monsanto, all globally active companies, have adopted corporate-led approaches to labor standards, as evidenced by their supplier code of conduct. Companies at the bottom of the ranking lack commitments to, and engagement of smallholders in, seed production in index countries and are not transparent about their seed production activities.

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Marketing & Sales

Companies employ a range of methods to attract smallholder customers, including offering diverse portfolios, supplying remote areas and targeting specific groups such as women smallholder farmers. Many companies also collaborate with governments on measures to improve distribution and tackle counterfeit seed.

Ranking for Marketing & Sales

Seed Co takes the lead in this measurement area, due to its broad marketing approach across the region, including its high number of demonstration events and affordability schemes as well as training programs for government extension workers, for which it receives leadership. East-West Seed owes its second-place ranking to a high level of commitment, wide presence and availability of a diverse portfolio. Several regional companies follow. East African Seed, in third place and present throughout the region, offers several activities dedicated to improving smallholder productivity, such as supplying non-seed inputs, counterfeit-prevention programs and demonstration events, particularly targeting women farmers. Ethiopian Agricultural Business Corporation also receives leadership points for the extent of its distribution, interacting with farmer groups and reaching smallholders at the kebele (local) level.

At the lower end of the ranking are companies that lack disclosure of their marketing activities directed at smallholder farmers and often only make a limited portfolio available in the region.

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Capacity Building

The majority of companies provide extension services and training, covering 15 index countries. The use of technology, particularly mobile apps, has increased since the 2016 Index. The development needs of women and next-generation farmers are addressed more frequently when these groups are seed producers than customers.

Ranking for Capacity Building

Corteva Agriscience leads the way in Capacity Building, largely thanks to its hybrid maize adoption programs in Ethiopia (AMSAP) and Zambia (ZAMSAP). Both programs offer holistic agronomic training, tackle postharvest losses, introduce new technologies and include women and youth, both crucial target groups. The company receives leadership points for these programs, as does fourth-placed Victoria Seeds for its focus on women smallholder farmers within its extension programs, typically achieving female participant rates of 70%.

Equator Seeds, in second place, demonstrates youth engagement in collaboration with USAID’s Feed the Future initiative, and East African Seed, in third place, offers tailored training based on individual smallholder needs and receives leadership points for the specific extension staff it employs across the region. Overall, however, scores in this measurement area are lower than others, a reflection of a lack of integrated corporate approaches toward capacity building. Companies at the lower end of the ranking typically do not have transparent commitments to smallholder training or offer isolated or one-off initiatives that do not appear to be part of a coherent strategy. Regional companies that are present in more than one index country often only offer training in their home market.

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Company Scorecards

The index presents scorecards for each company, which can be accessed via the links below. The scorecards highlight a company’s presence and portfolio, leading practices and notable findings. They also present comparative strengths in relation to the other companies assessed.

View here to see how the company ranking works.

Farmers participate in a field demonstration showcasing improved production practices for cabbages, a popular vegetable in the region.
Photo credit: East-West Seed

Country Profiles

Companies are present in all index countries across the region. Country reports provide an overview of the presence and activities of index companies in each country.

 

  • Angola

    Fourteen index companies report having a presence in Angola. Capstone Seeds and Seed Co are the only two companies both producing and testing seed in the country. No breeding activities or extension services were identified.

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  • Botswana

    Ten index companies report having a presence in Botswana. None of them have breeding, seed production or processing activities. Only two companies with testing locations were identified. One company offers extension services, with two technical staff dedicated to training farmers.

    Read more
  • Burundi

    Eight index companies are present in Burundi. Four are regionally based and four are globally active. Only two companies provide extension services and two report testing locations. Seed Co is the only company producing seed in the country.

    Read more
  • Eswatini

    Eight index companies report being present in Eswatini, but none have breeding or processing locations. Only one company has a seed production location and provides extension services, and one other has testing activities.

    Read more
  • Ethiopia

    Seventeen index companies have a presence in Ethiopia. However, only four provide extension services. Two companies have breeding programs, five produce seed (with three involving smallholders) and two process seed. Homegrown Ethiopian Agricultural Business Corporation is the only company with activities that span the seed value chain.

    Read more
  • Kenya

    Twenty-six index companies are present in Kenya, the highest number in the region, underscoring the country’s position as regional seed hub. Three index companies are headquartered here. Six companies breed, nine produce and six process seed. Kenya also has the broadest offering of extension services, provided by nine companies.

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  • Lesotho

    Six index companies are present in Lesotho – a low level of private sector activity. Furthermore, only one company carries out activities beyond sales, namely testing and extension. Local companies (not included in the index) do not provide evidence of activities beyond sales.

    Read more
  • Madagascar

    Ten index companies have a presence in Madagascar, alongside several local companies outside of the scope of the index. Only one index company has processing activities, and three produce seed. Two index companies, Technisem and Limagrain, have breeding activities.

    Read more
  • Malawi

    Eleven index companies have a presence in Malawi, including Demeter Seed, which is headquartered in the country and is one of two companies offering extension services. Five companies produce seed, three of them involving smallholders. Syngenta is the only company with breeding activities.

    Read more
  • Mozambique

    Seventeen index companies have a presence in Mozambique, but only three offer extension services. Five companies have testing locations and one has a breeding program. Three companies produce seed, two of which involve smallholders.

    Read more
  • Namibia

    Eleven index companies have a presence in Namibia, but no company reports providing extension services. Seed Co is the only company that produces seed and has a testing location in the country.

    Read more
  • Rwanda

    Thirteen index companies have a presence in Rwanda, with three of these providing extension services. Three companies test and produce seed and one processes seed. No companies report breeding programs.

    Read more
  • Somalia

    Only three index companies have a presence in Somalia, one of the lowest numbers in the region. Darusalam Seed Company is headquartered here. It is the only company to report testing, production and processing activities. However, it has no breeding program of its own.

    Read more
  • South Africa

    Twenty-one index companies report having a presence in South Africa, but only two report providing extension services. South Africa is one of the seed hubs in the region, with ten companies having a breeding location and ten having seed production locations. Only one involves smallholders in production.

    Read more
  • South Sudan

    Of the nine index companies present in South Sudan, no company reports providing extension services. No company breeds in the country either and only one company has a testing location. A further two companies have seed production activities, although neither involve smallholders.

    Read more
  • Tanzania

    Twenty-three index companies report having a presence in Tanzania, a regional seed hub, with five companies having breeding and processing locations and nine having seed production locations. Nine companies provide extension services.

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  • Uganda

    Twenty-one index companies report having a presence in Uganda. Four are also headquartered here. Uganda is one of the regional seed hubs, with three companies having breeding locations, five producing seed (of which four involve smallholders) and five processing seed.

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  • Zambia

    Twenty index companies are present in Zambia, including Zamseed, which is headquartered here. Seven companies produce seed although only two involve smallholders. Four companies have breeding locations, with four in total testing and processing seed. Five companies provide extension services.

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  • Zimbabwe

    Nineteen index companies report having a presence in Zimbabwe, but only three provide extension services. Four companies have a breeding location and three produce seed. All three involve smallholder farmers in seed production activities. Four companies report having processing locations.

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Angola

Fourteen index companies report having a presence in Angola. Capstone Seeds and Seed Co are the only two companies both producing and testing seed in the country. No breeding activities or extension services were identified.

Botswana

Ten index companies report having a presence in Botswana. None of them have breeding, seed production or processing activities. Only two companies with testing locations were identified. One company offers extension services, with two technical staff dedicated to training farmers.

Burundi

Eight index companies are present in Burundi. Four are regionally based and four are globally active. Only two companies provide extension services and two report testing locations. Seed Co is the only company producing seed in the country.

Eswatini

Eight index companies report being present in Eswatini, but none have breeding or processing locations. Only one company has a seed production location and provides extension services, and one other has testing activities.

Ethiopia

Seventeen index companies have a presence in Ethiopia. However, only four provide extension services. Two companies have breeding programs, five produce seed (with three involving smallholders) and two process seed. Homegrown Ethiopian Agricultural Business Corporation is the only company with activities that span the seed value chain.

Kenya

Twenty-six index companies are present in Kenya, the highest number in the region, underscoring the country’s position as regional seed hub. Three index companies are headquartered here. Six companies breed, nine produce and six process seed. Kenya also has the broadest offering of extension services, provided by nine companies.

Lesotho

Six index companies are present in Lesotho – a low level of private sector activity. Furthermore, only one company carries out activities beyond sales, namely testing and extension. Local companies (not included in the index) do not provide evidence of activities beyond sales.

Madagascar

Ten index companies have a presence in Madagascar, alongside several local companies outside of the scope of the index. Only one index company has processing activities, and three produce seed. Two index companies, Technisem and Limagrain, have breeding activities.

Malawi

Eleven index companies have a presence in Malawi, including Demeter Seed, which is headquartered in the country and is one of two companies offering extension services. Five companies produce seed, three of them involving smallholders. Syngenta is the only company with breeding activities.

Mozambique

Seventeen index companies have a presence in Mozambique, but only three offer extension services. Five companies have testing locations and one has a breeding program. Three companies produce seed, two of which involve smallholders.

Namibia

Eleven index companies have a presence in Namibia, but no company reports providing extension services. Seed Co is the only company that produces seed and has a testing location in the country.

Rwanda

Thirteen index companies have a presence in Rwanda, with three of these providing extension services. Three companies test and produce seed and one processes seed. No companies report breeding programs.

Somalia

Only three index companies have a presence in Somalia, one of the lowest numbers in the region. Darusalam Seed Company is headquartered here. It is the only company to report testing, production and processing activities. However, it has no breeding program of its own.

South Africa

Twenty-one index companies report having a presence in South Africa, but only two report providing extension services. South Africa is one of the seed hubs in the region, with ten companies having a breeding location and ten having seed production locations. Only one involves smallholders in production.

South Sudan

Of the nine index companies present in South Sudan, no company reports providing extension services. No company breeds in the country either and only one company has a testing location. A further two companies have seed production activities, although neither involve smallholders.

Tanzania

Twenty-three index companies report having a presence in Tanzania, a regional seed hub, with five companies having breeding and processing locations and nine having seed production locations. Nine companies provide extension services.

Uganda

Twenty-one index companies report having a presence in Uganda. Four are also headquartered here. Uganda is one of the regional seed hubs, with three companies having breeding locations, five producing seed (of which four involve smallholders) and five processing seed.

Zambia

Twenty index companies are present in Zambia, including Zamseed, which is headquartered here. Seven companies produce seed although only two involve smallholders. Four companies have breeding locations, with four in total testing and processing seed. Five companies provide extension services.

Zimbabwe

Nineteen index companies report having a presence in Zimbabwe, but only three provide extension services. Four companies have a breeding location and three produce seed. All three involve smallholder farmers in seed production activities. Four companies report having processing locations.

Disclaimer

Disclaimer
The online and printed reports presented by the Access to Seeds Index are intended to be for information purposes only and not as promotional material in any respect. The material is not intended as an offer or solicitation for the purchase or sale of any financial instrument. The reports are not intended to provide accounting, legal or tax advice or investment recommendations.

As a multi-stakeholder and collaborative project the Access to Seeds Index involves members of relevant stakeholder groups in expert or advisory committees. The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in Access to Seeds Index reports may not necessarily reflect the views of all involved or the organizations they represent.

The data used to compile the Access to Seeds Index, the ranking and findings are based on information publicly disclosed by companies or submitted on engagement. Information has been cross-checked and where relevant, verified with experts. Final scorecards were discussed with individual companies for fact checking purposes. Whilst based on information believed to be reliable, no guarantee can be given that it is accurate or complete.

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Acknowledgements
The Access to Seeds Index 2019 is made possible through the collaborative team efforts of many experts, authors, researchers, analysts and funders. Also the guidance from the Expert Review Committees and the Supervisory Board, as well as the cooperation with the team of the World Benchmarking Alliance have been helpful.

On the side of companies, representatives have been available to provide feedback on the methodology in various stages of the development process. Also teams have been working on gathering and submitting the requested data and provide clarification where necessary.

The Access to Seeds Foundation is grateful for the contributions and expertise, of each and would like to offer thanks to those who provided valuable feedback throughout the development of the Access to Seeds Index.

Copyright
No part of this report may be reproduced in any manner without the written permission of the Access to Seeds Foundation.

Editor
Cecily Layzell, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Design
Kummer & Herrman, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Web development
Studio September, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Photography
Grow More program:
 Syngenta
Field demonstration: East-West Seed
Governance & Strategy: Muzamil Muktar, Darusalam Seed Company
Genetic Resources: Access to Seeds Index
Intellectual Property: CIMMYT
Research & Development: Victoria Seeds
Seed Production: FICA Seeds
Marketing & Sales: Demeter Seed
Capacity Building: Kibata Kihu, Standard